Landscape Design

Landscape Design - this is the bright and (if possible) photorealistic version of the future. Design is necessary in order to represent what your site will become in the end. If landscape design is executed competently, you will save money and time with the carrying out of the construction. Design is the collection of standard documents, the embodiment of the work of the designer and the guide with which the subsequent improvement and re-planting of site will be carried out. The quantity of documents can differ, depending on how complex and intricate the site and idea is, the more complex as more documents. The design includes detailed descriptions and drawings of all of the necessary elements of the site, in all stages of the realization of the project. The design is a detailed plan of your site which answers all questions like: where to locate the paths, how to organize drainage for the site, where it is possible to create an artificial pond, what structures can be placed for vines, where and how to place decorative plants, where to organize vegetable garden and to arrange fruit garden, where to place screening vegetation in order to cover up undesirable views or to be hidden from outside eyes, how to plan proper lighting for the site, how to set up an irrigation system for the site.

Project contains such documents as: Master Plan, Detailed Planting and Improvement Plan, Dimension Plan, List of Plants and Materials, Photo Panorama and Exclusive Virtual Tour List, Grading Plan, Drainage Plan, Transit Survey GridSite Details and SectionsApplication List. In some cases, the creation of the following diagrams is necessary: Illumination, Irrigation (stationary, automatic or mobile), Paths and Areas.


master planMASTER PLAN

The Master Plan is the main drawing. It reveals the form and boundaries of the finished site, all existing, reconstructed and projected buildings, structures, plants, ponds and paths. This drawing, which describes the idea of designer to the smallest details is also the basic document for further carrying out work in your site. It is carried out on the basis of the plan of the topographic survey of your land obtained previously. In essence this is the drawing of your future landscape. All existing and future structures, all elements of landscape design (ponds, alpine gardens, flower beds and flower gardens), basic vegetation, paths, zones and in certain cases the underground utilities are included in the master plan. The calculation of the construction cost is produced using this document, as well as the order of its development and the specification of materials and plants.

It is developed on the basis of the approved sketch. This is the thoroughly thought-out plan, made in colour in electronic form. On it the boundaries of the site are depicted, as well as all existing plants, all structures, architectural structures, flower gardens, ponds, all projected structures and plants (their type, form, size: trees, the bushes, deciduous, coniferous, vines, etc. is examined). In the space the references, legend, scale is indicated, orientation and wind direction are placed. It also graphically expresses the direction and duration of prevailing winds in this area according to the observations. On the master plan the buildings are shown as the roofing or in the form of the schematic plan of the ground floor. So that the master plan would clearly reflect the nature of the volumetric solution and the height of building, the shadows falling from it are shown on the drawing.


detailed planting and improvement planDETAILED PLANTING AND IMPROVEMENT PLAN

The Planting Plan is a drawing on which the boundaries of the site are shown, as well as the existing and projected structures, flower gardens and the sizes of the crowns of trees and bushes at the moment of their maximum bloom. Numbers are drawn on all elements of the plan for reference.

The groups of plants - first of all, the plants must harmonize with the architectural style of all buildings, their age and also with the materials utilized in the project. Sizes or proportions of buildings and area where they will be planted will influence both the selection of plants and their grouping - it may be necessary to separate the outlines of any part of the site or group of structures with the aid of the plants. The correct grouping of plants ensures the necessary visual effect. The selected plants must harmonize with the environment. Original outlines, form, structures and aromas - all this will make the created groups of plants memorizing. In order to connect vegetation with the buildings or the surrounding view accented and structural plants are required.

Accented and structural plants must possess certain qualities which separate them from the overall plant mass. This can be the form of their crown, the form of their leafs or simply the colour. Separating trees or large bushes around which the remaining groups of plants are arranged can be done with them. structural are selected according to the accented plants, which preserve the form and interesting texture year round.

The blooming shrubs are placed after placing accented and structural plants. Vines and trellis bushes will prove useful for the softening of structures, and also for the rapid creation of a background for the borders, especially narrow ones located on the wall of house.

Grassy and ground cover plants are used for the softening of the general effect; they do not require constant maintenance. Broad-leaved plants can contrast those with the thinner leafs.

The filling plants are used, when it is necessary to increase the volume of the recently planted garden. They are used temporarily while long-standing vegetation is still growing.

Bulbs, bulb-radical and radical plants can be planted under other plants in order to maximally use an area. They also revive mix borders at the beginning of vegetation because they flower for the entire summer to the middle of autumn.


dimension planDIMENSION PLAN

The Dimension Plan is the working plan for those who will bring the project to life, for the extension of the elements of planning - paths, the areas, revetment, small architectural forms (sheds, gazebos) and other structures - with the tying to the area with the indication of scale and orientation. Tying is achieved to the existing buildings, the enclosure and the groups of the existing vegetation.

This drawing is created with the aid of base lines and a square grid. All sizes are always indicated in meters. Grid size can be large or small, depending on the area of the site and the scale of the drawing. The starting point of the center grid is designated on the plan capital letter and is located on one of the intersections of base lines. This intersection can be the angle of house, the angle of the fence, the angle of the garage, etc.





list of plants and materialsLIST OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS

Specification of Plants and Materials - is the identification of materials and plants which are used in the master plan. It is a table, which includes five columns: reference number, coloured image, total number and the Common and Scientific name of the plant. The specification of plants is necessary for the competent calculation of the cost of plants and material and for the optimized selection of its suppliers (i.e. of nurseries).










Photo Panorama List - Since any person, even without professional education, can understand photos the tracing of specific points or the creation of 3D images in electronic form is very useful. This makes it possible to represent future landscape in more detail which in turn creates a better understanding of the design. This will make it easier to understand the concepts and thoughts of designer. The photo panorama list is Landscape Design with a unique 3D rendition of your property so you can see what it will look like before the construction starts.

Exclusive Virtual Tour - this is a new computer technology, which gives you a fabulous opportunity to see your colourfully designed space in Flash format. 






Grading Plan-listGRADING PLAN

The Grading Plan of the site - this is the combination of the actions of those directed towards the partial or complete creation of relief according to requirements and rules of the landscape planning solution. Reflects a drop in the heights, inclines and swales in the site. The design of the grading plan is better to do simultaneously with the development of the planning solution and in combination with the measures for the organization of the drain of surface water, the design of ponds and protection from floods.

The basic tasks of grading plan are:

  • to create an outlet for the surpluses of surface water (rain, flood, thawed snow) to escape
  • the creation of conditions for the convenient movement on paths, alleys and for relaxation and play
  • the creation of the expressive and smooth forms of relief in accordance with the intention of designer, i.e., the maximum adaptation of the existing relief through the installation of special structures
  • the creation of favourable conditions for the growth of vegetation
  • trees, bushes, grassy plants, the elimination of the phenomena of soil erosion
  • the strengthening of slopes, steep shores of ponds through the installation of special structures
  • the addition of stairs, revetment, slopes and terraces

 The grading plan of the site must be done rationally and with effectiveness. The effectiveness of the design is determined by the following technical and economic characteristics:

  • the smallest volume of earthwork for the greatest effect in the design
  • the balance of transit survey- equality of the volume of work on the excavation of soil and burial (when there is no need for to export the surpluses of soil or leaving it on the side)
  • the minimization of distances of displacement of soil; planning where most of the excavated soil can go to be used. 


Drainage, Electrical Plan and Fountain Service-listDRAINAGE PLAN  

Drainage Plan - is the plan for the locations of the lines of water-lowering drainage. The high-altitude marks on the bottom of wells and the depth of the bedding of drain pipes are indicated on this diagram, and the arrangement of evenly spaced manholes and stations for the pumping of drainage waters are also schematically are indicated. The construction sections and details of the drainage system can either be shown in the empty space of this sheet or on a separate sheet.

Drainage is required to prevent the over wetting of the site by ground water. Ground water is the underground waters deposits located in the soil. Horizontal drainage is a system of closed artificial water flows intended for the draining of the site, i.e., of the regulation (reduction) of the level of ground water. These water flows are built at the depth of 1.0-2.5 m from the earth's surface approximately in parallel to the earth's surface with the incline of 0.5-1.0cm to 1m.

Lowering the level of ground water is achieved by the building of drainage systems. The length of drains is not larger than 150m and the diameter of the pipes of the collector drainage network are from 50mm to 200mm. The drains accumulate water from the soil due to the hydrostatic pressure; therefore they fill the trench with an effective filtering material. In this case the bottom of the trench is filled up with a layer of a sand and gravel mixture or coarse-grained sand, to which is the drain pipe added. It is then filled with a layer of crushed stone, which is then wrapped with a geotextile fabric and covered with a layer of sand. For the normal operation of a drainage system in the places of a turn or a change in the incline of drainage collector line wells (made of concrete or plastic) of a different diameter (from 0.3 to 1.0 m) are added. 


Transit Survey Grid-list TRANSIT SURVEY GRID  

The Transit Survey Grid is calculated and built on the basis the project of the grading plan - it makes it possible to estimate the volume and cost and to also select a method for the carrying out of the work.  

All intersection points of a grid are marked on the ground with temporary stakes. The elevations of each intersection point are taken with a transit or level and the elevation data is plotted on a gridded plan of the site. Usually, the elevations of critical high or low points that fall between the intersections are also located on the plan.







Site details-listSection-listSITE DETAILS AND SECTIONS  

Site Details and Sections - are separately drawn sketches and drawings of structures or Small Architectural Forms (SAF), the drawings of water structures, along with alpine and flower gardens of different types. 













After all of the design aspects will be completed the cost of the landscape construction is given. After the customer's approval of the estimate and plans it will be possible to approach the most labour intensive stage of work on the improvement of the site - the realization of the landscape design project. Here it is no longer important which company will work with the plans, though the designer's supervision would help achieve the exact effect the designer had in mind, when the designer controls the accuracy of the project development and even when other specialists during the year after development continue to track the project.

Thus, landscape design is a labour intensive and multistage process; however, it is very captivating and interesting.

The most important thing is the inexpressible emotions which will arise in the creator of the plans at the sight of the realized project!